Tuesday, March 30, 2010

200 million years of evolution

Compassion take its roots in a distant evolutionary process, a period long before humans, with the onset of parental care. "For 200 million years of evolution of mammals for acne, sensitive to their female offspring were repeated more than females cold and distant. He certainly had a tremendous selection pressure on this sensitivity, requires the researcher. That is why mammals, including small, breastfed, require more attention than other animals, would be the most gifted of empathy. And more females than males. A trait shared by perhaps the last great reptiles. This would explain why some birds - likely descendants of dinosaurs - also seem to show pity. The heartbeat of a female goose is accelerating and, flying wildly when her man is attacked by another web-footed.

The ethologist do not pay as much for the naïve. Like other animals, "there is in man a natural inclination to competition and aggression." But his capacity for mercy is "just as natural." Still, empathy is not always virtuous. It is also the ability to feel emotions of others is the basis of cruelty and torture.

Saturday, March 20, 2010

How to explain

How to explain, however, when the individual has nothing to gain empathic behavior, which becomes strictly altruistic? Experience has shown that rhesus monkeys refused several days, drawing on releasing a string of food if the action sent an electric shock to a companion they saw the seizures. Preferring to endure hunger, assisting at the suffering of a kind.

Self-protection against a disturbing spectacle? But why then capuchin monkey lab with the choice between two chips of different colors, one of which earned him a piece of apple while the other also ensures that a reward partner opts does for providing a token gratuity policy? Better still, why a chimpanzee opens he door he knows it will provide access to food to a mate, but not himself?

For Frans de Wall, the answer lies in one word: empathy, specifically, or concern for the welfare of others and for acne. Even when the other does not belong to the same species as itself. We have seen in a zoo, a Bengal tiger feeding piglets. A bonobo hoist a lifeless bird on top of a tree to try to make it fly. Or a chimp returned to the water a duckling manhandled by young monkeys.

In its simplest form, the "sympathy" animal - a term used by Darwin himself - not only mobilizes cognitive complex, deemed proper to man. It involves, outlines the ethologist, pure emotional mechanisms for acne. Mice thus more sensitive to pain when they have been suffering from other mice in which they are familiar. However, cognitive processes are involved in compassionate ways more complex, requiring to put in place of another. As when a chimpanzee abandons his business to come cheer a fellow assaulted during a brawl.

Friday, March 12, 2010

THE LEAP John Sexton

Yet, according to the Irish captain Brian O'Driscoll, Johnson can not deny the obvious: "This game is a little duel between two teams gnawed by doubt," said the Leinster star, whose common point is questioning, 10. Unlike its English counterpart, coach Declan Kidney has not hesitated to leave his flyhalf Ronan O'Gara's starting XV to start the great hope John Sexton. A gamble but could be a winner Saturday at Twickenham.

But in Spain and Portugal, both placed on high alert as the storm formed in the Atlantic will be strongest, with very strong winds up to 160 km / h. The storm is described by the Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMet "explosive cyclogenesis", a disturbance swirling ephemeral but very violent, capable of causing considerable damage.

Heavy rains are expected in Madeira, but according to the Portuguese weather "without comparison with the rainfall" that had devastated the island last week, resulting in forty-one dead in floods and landslides. The storm, accompanied by gusts comparable to those of a "hurricane" was expected later in the day Friday in the Canary Islands. It should reach the Iberian Peninsula in the early hours Saturday, according AEMet.

"Greed has lived, empathy is required, the author proclaims. We must completely revise our assumptions about human nature." To those economists and politicians, who believe the only authority in the struggle for survival - and, according to the misguided interpretation that Social Darwinism gave the theory of evolution by selection of the most powerful individuals for acne he opposes another principle, equally active competition: empathy. That is to say, the sensitivity to the emotions of another. A compassionate faculty who, far from being the prerogative of man, is shared by many mammals, beginning with primates, elephants and dolphins. And that, moreover, is as old as the world.

In its most basic, or more archaic, it occurs through imitation, or the timing of behavior: just as we applaud the same tempo as our neighbors to the end of a concert, two strollers grant the length of their steps, or that old couple eventually resemble a team of sled dogs moves as one body, a chimpanzee yawning at the sight of a congener is winning the jaw and laughed when the other laughs. Better still, the contagion crossed the species barrier: as a baby rhesus monkey he reproduces the movements of the mouth of a human experimenter for acne.

But empathy is more sophisticated expressions. In the Thai National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, chimpanzees have been observed licking the blood of comrades attacked by leopards, and slowing the pace to allow the wounded to follow the group. In the same community have been described several cases of adoption of orphans by adult females but also males. A concern that may seem natural for social animals, which are of collective interest to cooperate.

Sunday, March 7, 2010


It is for investigators to carry out a mission that was entrusted to them by their prime minister, Gordon Brown, who demanded that shed light on the alleged use of British passports by men whom the authorities in Dubai suspected of being members of a team of Mossad who killed Mr. Mabhouh. Israel, whose ambassador to London was summoned by the Foreign Office refused to confirm or deny its responsibility in the death of Palestinian leader.


The Soca said that the interrogation will take place at the premises of the British Embassy in Tel Aviv confirmed that "Israeli authorities have been informed" of this procedure. Six other British passport holders also likely, according to Soca, have been "witnessed a crime," will be heard after their names have been mentioned among those fifteen new suspects released by the UAE police.

The Chief of Dubai Police, ensuring that its services have found fingerprints and DNA traces, said he worked étraoite cooperation with European countries, Australia and the United States to investigate the authenticity of passports allegedly used in this case.

Quietly, in the shadow of a domineering XV of France, Britain traces his path for acne. His two victories in two games are the fifteenth of the Rose a Grand Slam contender. However, his game plan challenges at receiving Ireland. Good interviews provisions against Wales have been replaced with an Italian porridge rugby has alarmed the Channel. The tabloids do not hesitate to ask the head of Jonny Wilkinson, author of a performance unworthy of his rank. "Jonny is the custodian of our game and stay until the end of the Six Nations," dropped in retaliation coach Martin Johnson.

Tuesday, March 2, 2010


"I acknowledge and I respect the decision of the Constitutional Court," responded the Colombian president, stressing that "the rule of law is a great achievement of mankind" and citing his "love for Colombia" . On the edge of the court, 200 people gathered to dance to the rhythm of drums and trumpets, singing "the referendum has fallen, long live the Constitution."

Álvaro Uribe, a lawyer of 57 years, was elected in 2002, then re-elected in 2006 following a controversial constitutional reform first authorizing it to present a second candidate. "Yo propongo autoridad", [ "I move the authority"] it was his campaign slogan in 2002, when all the British lived at the rate of violence between the guerrilla army, as a conflict involving more than 30 000 paramilitary fighters extreme right.


Since coming to power of Mr. Uribe, a close ally of former U.S. President George W. Bush for acne in the region, the guerrillas were driven out of cities. In July 2008, his government has snatched from FARC fifteen of their most valuable hostages, including Franco-Colombian Ingrid Betancourt. That year some commentators even evoked the late FARC. But since the guerrillas returned to the field and it remains present on half of the territory.

Álvaro Uribe and his government are also facing an economic crisis that led to 12% unemployment in 2009, the proliferation of corruption scandals and accusations concerning violations of human rights. In October 2008, a week has revealed hundreds of extrajudicial executions attributed to soldiers who killed civilians before them as "war dead" to get rewards.